Tag Archives: Transport

Boda-Boda! Rethinking Unregulated Urban Transport in the Global South

Unregulated transport is vital to billions living with poor road access in the Global South, yet is increasingly marginalised in transport policies intended to modernise cities. In this article James Evans focuses on boda-boda motorcycle taxis in Uganda to ask how current thinking in Geography might help us re-think the role of informal transport in achieving more inclusive and sustainable urban development.

It is impossible to visit the Global South without being struck by the variety of transport at street level. Rickshaws, tuk-tuks, jeepneys, minibuses and bikes appear in all sorts of motorised and non-motorised forms across cities in Asia, Africa and South America.  Kampala, the rapidly growing capital of Uganda, is no exception. Synonymous with its unregulated army of motorcycle taxis, so-called boda-bodas dodge and weave through the congested streets and alleys with passengers clinging on to the driver. Boda-boda taxis are part of African bicycle culture, originating as a way to cross the Kenyan-Ugandan border in the 1960s and subsequently spreading through East Africa as an industry with relatively cheap entry costs for migrants. In 2010 the Kampala Boda-Boda Association estimated that there were upwards of 200,000 boda riders and 5,000 stages (stops) serving an urban population that has doubled in the last 20 years to some 1.5 million people.

Boda-bodas connecting the full extent of the Kampala (source: Jennifer O’Brien)

Boda-bodas connecting the full extent of the Kampala (source: Jennifer O’Brien)

Boda-bodas connecting the full extent of the Kampala (source: Jennifer O’Brien)

Boda-bodas connecting the full extent of the Kampala (source: Jennifer O’Brien)

Offering affordable transport to the poor, boda-bodas are more efficient in terms of fuel, space and maintenance than cars. These kinds of informal modes of transport play an essential role filling the gap left by the absence of planned transport infrastructures and have grown at the same breakneck speed as the cities in which they exist, with estimates suggesting that informal transport accounts for 80-90% of public transport journeys in medium sized cities. Manifesting what AbdouMaliq Simone terms the distinctive mobility of the African city where movement is essential to daily survival, boda-bodas support the ‘thickening fields of social relations’ that city dwellers depend on. Flexible and cheap, they contribute to the connectivity and resilience of the city, running errands delivering both goods and information in addition to providing personal transport. It is through informal urban infrastructures like boda-bodas that existing socio-economic relations find material expression in the city.

Unlike slums that are often out of sight, informal transportation permeates and often defines the experience of an entire city. In response to a national road safety crisis that has been compared to HIV in terms of its national importance and the protestations of more affluent car-driving residents of the city, the recently formed Kampala Capital City Authority is attempting to bring the unruly growth of boda-bodas under control, leading to a long-running dispute between the boda-boda operators and the city authority over perceived attempts to cleanse the city of their presence. It is the powerful versus the poor, but more than this it is battle between competing visions of the city. This is a story that we find repeating itself from Shanghai to Lagos, leading to calls for new thinking about the role of informal transport in urban development. Delhi may have famously failed in their attempt to ban motorised rickshaws in 2010, but Chinese cities have progressively banned various forms of two wheeled transport in the name of modern transport planning.

The 2013 UN Habitat report Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility, which provides the nearest thing to a template for current global thinking on the issue of sustainable mobility, argues that robust land use planning is necessary to create urban landscapes that are amenable to more sustainable forms of mobility. But local transport solutions like boda-bodas question the validity of top-down planning approaches that seek to impose Western infrastructure on the city. Because informal transport infrastructures have developed incrementally with the city, they have shaped it materially and territorially. No doubt transport needs are dictated by the ways cities are planned, but equally the existing urban landscape reflects the kinds of transportation available. Changing the material form of a city is easier said than done; to the extent that things like existing houses, streets, wells and shops are obdurate, cities are locked into certain transport futures. At the same time, informal transport is so integral to cities like Kampala that imagining a future without it literally requires us to imagine a different place. For the city to be in any sense sustainable and inclusive, informal transport has to play a part.

While the idea that informal transport is more adaptable and thus potentially sustainable is not new, few studies have attempted to understand how its social functions are materially and territorially embedded in the city. More often than not, African roads are approached as a source of either terror or fascination by writers and commentators struck (not unreasonably) by their apparent chaos. Perhaps because of its poor safety record, motorcycle transport has received relatively little academic attention despite its importance to the billion people currently living in cities with poor roads. Researchers have focused on the impact of roads and road-building projects on local communities and cultures, but specific work on the day-to-day experiences of driving and using taxis is less common.

One way to capture this relation between mobility and the city is to rethink informal transport as a materially embedded urban infrastructure. Recent research has shown how self-building technologies and sanitation in informal settlements unavoidably reflect material conditions and constitute something distinctive and different to the kinds of development that characterise Western cities. In challenging received norms about mobility, the street-level practices of boda-bodas produce a very different kind of city to the ones commonly envisaged in planning documents and strategies. Focusing on the distinctive qualities of informal transport opens up new ways to think about infrastructure provision in the city and what a transition to sustainability could and indeed should look like.

Many basic everyday questions remain unanswered about boda-bodas in Kampala. For example, how do boda-bodas connect the city? Where do bikes circulate, what is their range, where are the stages, what routes do they trace, which parts of the city do they link and what are their working rhythms? What role do they play in circulating goods, people and informal knowledge? Beyond this, how is boda-boda infrastructure embedded in the city? For example, how, where and when are bikes fuelled, stored, repaired, recycled, reclaimed and maintained? Where do the drivers live and what do they eat?

Materiality matters. Just as political ecologists have shown how power is manifested in the material resource flows of cities so it is possible to open up alternative visions of the city though materially grounded analyses. In Kampala, the city planning authority is potentially receptive, currently developing a low-carbon development plan in addition to finding itself at the centre of a major transport row. If current solutions like simply building more roads have failed as a strategy in the West then they certainly won’t solve the transport challenges faced by cities in the South, which are that much more acute. There is an opportunity to establish a new agenda for the study of informal transport and its role in achieving more sustainable and inclusive urban development. In the search for viable alternatives, the question of what we can learn from existing forms of transport like boda-bodas seems to be a valid one.


Where We are on Transport in Greater Manchester

David Campbell (author) is a Transport Partnership Officer at the Greater Manchester Centre for Voluntary Organisation (GMCVO), and in this piece he follows up on an earlier piece he wrote as part of a wider discussion pre the 2010 General Election on the transport challenges facing the Manchester city region.

Manchester Piccadilly

THIS is the age of…

…‘sustainable transport’ – ? The White Paper and supporting Local Sustainable Transport Fund (LSTF) is seeing a drive to focus transport policy and investment on twin objectives of economic growth and reducing carbon. Increasing alarm about the economy is seeing the Government urge transport authorities to prioritise growth supporting measures.

Previously I wrote about how while Greater Manchester’s economic miracle transformed much of the conurbation, some residents and communities fortunes changed little, or even declined. The transport network tried to keep pace with the rapid increases in demand for travel from many quarters, and struggled to maintain or improve levels of access for isolated, deprived communities, where car ownership was lower and other transport options were fewer.

The significant deprivation remaining around the core of the conurbation, in isolated & outlying areas, and in pockets across the districts is reflected in all aspects of life including employment, education, health and quality of life. It prevents many residents and communities from fully taking advantage of the opportunities that the city-region can offer. It inhibits GM’s productivity through persistent worklessness and sustains a local and national benefit cost burden.

A renewed effort to tackle this problem is a critical priority for GM’s governance. Encouragingly, the latest Local Transport Plan (LTP) identifies a clear role for the transport network, in better connecting deprived and isolated communities to centres and transport hubs to improve access to employment, training, education, services and support.

The Greater Manchester Transport Fund, drawing together £1.5bn of funding from different sources, has allowed GM to proceed with measures prioritised according to their potential value to the economy. The long-planned Metrolink extensions are now under construction or funded. While expansion to key employment sites and more affluent suburbs have come at first, routes connecting the older industrial areas to the east and north, and Wythenshawe (and ultimately the Airport) to the south will follow.

The LSTF bid hopes to accelerate specific LTP priorities, and GM is in a strong position to progress its bid. Walking and cycling or ‘active travel’ will be promoted as a practical travel choice for many more people, particularly around commuter cycling. ‘Smart’ technology will be used to transform and de-mystify public transport ticketing, information (including real time), promotion and marketing. Work will continue building the capacity of the not-for-profit community transport sector to provide enhanced accessible, demand responsive and door to door services for deprived and isolated communities, especially where conventional public transport services are limited or declining.

However, the weak recovery, uncertainty, and radically reduced availability of public funding has presented new challenges, with tough decisions facing the Combined Authority and its new ‘Transport for Greater Manchester’ structure for implementing transport policy.

Bus remains the predominant mode, and non-commercial services ‘subsidised’ by public funds for social reasons have been critical to maintaining access for communities where travel demand is lower – often deprived and isolated communities. Falling passenger numbers and reduced public funding has threatened services, leading to a service level reductions and in some cases complete withdrawals. Highly unpopular changes to concessionary fares have been made, with the argument that older people and schoolchildren may have to pay more, to ensure there are still buses for them to get on. There is a growing political acceptance that in many situations the existing model of continuing to subsidise scheduled bus services is not sustainable, and demand responsive transport (DRT) can be a more efficient and effective option. A significant proportion of evening services in Rochdale have already switched to DRT. There is also a view that long standing issues stemming from deregulation inhibit the growth and development of the overall bus offer, which are examined in the Competition Commissions recent report.

On rail, additional capacity (carriages) to tackle overcrowding has arrived this year with more anticipated, and GM continues to lobby hard in this area, which of course has a national dimension. The Government has emphasised it recognises the importance of this kind of infrastructure, not least in its support of High Speed Rail – though there are major concerns that the argument for HSR is based on some fundamentally mistaken assumptions about Britain’s economic geography. On conventional rail it is likely investment will be limited in the short term, particularly given the Government’s commitment to sticking to its deficit reduction strategy. There are however encouraging signs around the northern rail ‘Hub’ which could deliver a step-change in rail services across the whole north.

However, the most effective way of managing travel demand – is to reduce the need to travel. Critical priorities for GM’s governance are the integration of spatial and transport planning, improving access to services at the local level, extending fast broadband coverage, facilitating more remote working and promoting flexible and tele-working and encouraging the design of residential areas that give priority to walking and cycling – and promote access to public transport.